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Orders on Standard Delivery are usually delivered with in 5 days, but please in busy periods allow up to 7. Of those cases, nearly people died. Those who were infected with the disease were detained in quarantine facilities in the hopes of protecting others from getting sick. These quarantine facilities, or pesthouses, were mostly located on Southampton Street. Women and children were primarily sent to Southampton Street. Smallpox patients were not allowed in regular hospital facilities throughout the city, for fear the sickness would spread among the already sick.

A reflection of the previous outbreak that occurred in New York, the poor and homeless were blamed for the sickness's spread. In response to this belief, the city instructed teams of physicians to vaccinate anyone living in inexpensive housing. In an effort to control the outbreak, the Boston Board of Health began voluntary vaccination programs. Individuals could receive free vaccines at their work places or at different stations set up throughout the city.

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However, despite the city's efforts, the epidemic continued to grow. In January , a door-to-door vaccination program was initiated. This door-to-door program was met by some resistance as some individuals feared the vaccines to be unsafe and ineffective. Others felt compulsory vaccination in itself was a problem that violated an individual's civil liberties. This program of compulsory vaccination eventually led to the famous Jacobson v. Massachusetts case. The case was the result of a Cambridge resident's refusal to be vaccinated. Henning Jacobsen, a Swedish immigrant, refused vaccination out of fear it would cause him illness.

He claimed a previous smallpox vaccine had made him sick as a child. Rather than pay the five dollar fine, he challenged the state's authority on forcing people to receive vaccination. His case was lost at the state level, but Jacobson appealed the ruling, and so, the case was taken up by the Supreme Court. In the Supreme Court upheld the Massachusetts law: it was ruled Jacobson could not refuse the mandatory vaccination. In Canada, between and , nearly a quarter of the population of Quebec city died due to a smallpox epidemic.

There is evidence that smallpox reached the Philippine islands from the 4th century CE onwards — linked possibly to contact between South East Asians and Indian traders. During the 18th century, there were many major outbreaks of smallpox, driven possibly by increasing contact with European colonists and traders. There were epidemics, for instance, in the Sultanate of Banjar South Kalimantan , in , —51, —65 and —79; in the Sultanate of Tidore Moluccas during the s, and in southern Sumatra during the s, the s and in Smallpox is exogenous to Australia.

The central hypotheses of these theories suggest that smallpox was transmitted to indigenous Australians by either:. In , Dr J. Cumpston , director of the Australian Quarantine Service tentatively put forward the hypothesis that smallpox arrived with British settlers.


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Campbell argued that scientific evidence concerning the viability of variolous matter used for inoculation did not support the possibility of the disease being brought to Australia on the long voyage from Europe. Campbell also noted that there was no evidence of Aborigines ever having been exposed to the variolous matter, merely speculation that they may have been. Later authors, such as Christopher Warren, [82] and Craig Mear [83] continued to argue that smallpox emanated from the importation of variolous matter on the First Fleet.

Warren suggested that Campbell had erred in assuming that high temperatures would have sterilised the British supply of smallpox. Willis , in a survey of the literature discussed above, endorsed Campbell's argument. The rival hypothesis, that the outbreak was introduced to Australia by visitors from Makassar , came to prominence in , with Judy Campbell's book Invisible Invaders.

Macknight , an authority on the interaction between indigenous Australians and Makassans. A further complication is that epidemiologists have described the behavior of at least the first of these "smallpox" epidemics as far more typical of the closely related but to Europeans though not to Aborigines less deadly chickenpox , which was certainly present in the settlement.

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Another major outbreak was observed in —30, near Bathurst, New South Wales. Elsewhere in the Pacific, smallpox killed many indigenous Polynesians. The whaler ship Delta brought smallpox to the Micronesian island of Pohnpei on 28 February The Pohnpeians reacted by first feasting their offended spirits and then resorted hiding. The disease eventually wiped out more than half the island's population. The deaths of chiefs threw Pohnpeian society into disarray, and the people started blaming the God of the Christian missionaries.

The Christian missionaries themselves saw the epidemic as God's punishment for the people and offered the natives inoculations, though often withheld such treatment from the priests. The epidemic abated in October One viewpoint is that smallpox emerged in AD and the earlier reported cases were incorrectly identified as smallpox.

Early in history, it was observed that those who had contracted smallpox once were never struck by the disease again. Thought to have been discovered by accident, it became known that those who contracted smallpox through a break in the skin in which smallpox matter was inserted received a less severe reaction than those who contracted it naturally.

This realization led to the practice of purposely infecting people with matter from smallpox scabs in order to protect them later from a more severe reaction. This practice, known today as variolation , was first practiced in China in the 10th century. Variolation was the sole method of protection against smallpox other than quarantine until Jenner's discovery of the inoculating abilities of cowpox against the smallpox virus in Efforts to protect populations against smallpox by way of vaccination followed for centuries after Jenner's discovery.

Smallpox has since been completely eradicated since , because of the mass vaccination efforts of the World Health Organization. The word variolation is synonymous with inoculation, insertion, en-grafting, or transplantation. The term is used to define insertion of smallpox matter, and distinguishes this procedure from vaccination, where cowpox matter was used to obtain a much milder reaction among patients.

The practice of variolation also known as inoculation first came out of East Asia. Scabs from smallpox victims who had the disease in its mild form would be selected, and the powder was kept close to body temperature by means of keeping it close to the chest, killing the majority of the virus and resulting in a more mild case of smallpox.

The process was carried out by taking eight smallpox scabs and crushing them in a mortar with two grains of Uvularia grandiflora in a mortar. In India, where the European colonizers came across variolation in the 17th century, a large, sharp needle was dipped into the pus collected from mature smallpox sores.

Several punctures with this needle were made either below the deltoid muscle or in the forehead, and then were covered with a paste made from boiled rice. In , Lady Mary Wortley Montagu 's brother died of smallpox; she too contracted the virus two years later at the age of twenty-six, leaving her badly scarred. It was here that Lady Mary first came upon variolation.

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When an epidemic broke out in London following her return, Lady Mary wanted to protect her daughter from the virus by having her variolated as well. Maitland performed the procedure, which was a success. She had both an orphanage and several convicts variolated before she was convinced. Minister Edmund Massey , in , called variolation dangerous and sinful, saying that people should handle the disease as the biblical figure Job did with his own tribulations, without interfering with God's test for mankind. Robert and Daniel Sutton further revived the practice of variolation in England by advertising their perfect variolation record, maintained by selecting patients who were healthy when variolated and were cared for during the procedure in the Sutton's own hygienic hospital.

News of variolation spread to the royal families of Europe. Several royal families had themselves variolated by English physicians claiming to be specialists. Recipients include the family of Louis XV following his own death of smallpox, and Catherine the Great , whose husband had been horribly disfigured by the disease. After this instance, variolation was banned within city limits. These conditions caused physicians to move just outside the cities and continue to practice variolation in the suburbs.

Edward Jenner was variolated in at age eight in an inoculation barn in Wotton-under-Edge, England. At this time, in preparation for variolation children were bled repeatedly and were given very little to eat and only given a diet drink made to sweeten their blood. This greatly weakened the children before the actual procedure was given. Holbrow, an apothecary. The procedure involved scratching the arm with the tip of a knife, placing several smallpox scabs in the cuts and then bandaging the arm.

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After receiving the procedure, the children stayed in the barn for several weeks to recover. First symptoms occurred after one week and usually cleared up three days later. On average, it took a month to fully recover from the encounter with smallpox combined with weakness from the preceding starvation. At the age of thirteen, Jenner was sent to study medicine in Sodbury with Daniel Ludlow , a surgeon and apothecary, from to [] [] [] who had a strong sense of cleanliness which Jenner learned from him.


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  • During his apprenticeship, Jenner heard that upon contracting cowpox , the recipient became immune to smallpox for the remainder of their life. After learning all he could from Ludlow, Jenner apprenticed with John Hunter in London from — Hunter believed in deviating from the accepted treatment and trying new methods if the traditional methods failed. This was considered unconventional medicine for the time period and had a pivotal role in Jenner's development as a scientist.

    After two years of apprenticeship, Jenner moved back to his hometown of Berkeley, [] where he quickly gained the respect of both his patients and other medical professionals for his work as a physician.

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    This research was slow going as Jenner often had to wait months or even years before cases of cowpox would again return to the Gloucestershire area. Through his study, he incorrectly deduced that smallpox and cowpox were all the same disease, simply manifesting themselves differently in different animals, eventually setting back his research and making it difficult to publish his findings. Though Jenner had seen cases of people becoming immune to smallpox after having cowpox, too many exceptions of people still contracting smallpox after having had cowpox were arising.

    Jenner was missing crucial information which he later discovered in He deduced that cowpox was most likely to transfer immunity from smallpox if administered at the eighth day of the disease. On May 14, , he performed an experiment in which he took pus from a sore of a cowpox infected milkmaid named Sarah Nelmes and applied it to a few small scratches on the arm of an eight-year-old boy who had never before contracted either smallpox or cowpox, named James Phipps. Phipps recovered as expected.


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