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Even more remarkable than the size of the type system is the stylistic scope it covers, including elaborate italics, monolinear Lights, heavily slab-serif-flavored Caption cuts, and Grande styles that verge on becoming stencilsall referencing different works from the golden era of the Didots. With this pluralism of style and character, Trianon almost commands you to use it in all the "wrong"ways, exhibiting flamboyant shapes, flexibility, and individuality. Born in in Niigata, Japan. Studied at the Musashino Art University in Tokyo. He also studied calligraphy at the London College of Printing.
He became a freelance designer in Akira Kobayashi, who was based in Tokyo prior to his move to the Franfurt area, is an accomplished type designer who has created numerous typefaces for Sha-Ken, Dainippon Screen where he made the kanji font Hiragino Mincho , TypeBank from , ITC and Linotype, where he is Type Director since Linotype states that Kobayashi took his inspiration from a print typeface of the 15th century created by two German printers named Konrad Sweynheim and Arnold Pannartz , and the 5th Morisawa International Typeface Competition in which he received an Honourable Mention for his typeface Socia Oldstyle.
In contrast to Times New Roman, Times Europa has sturdier characters and more open counter spaces, which help maintain readability in rougher printing conditions. Times Europa drastically improved on the legibility of the bold and italic styles of Times New Roman. Frutiger Serif is based on Frutiger's Meridien and the Frutiger sans family. Neue Frutiger , with Adrian Frutiger has twice as many weights as the orifinal Frutiger family.
Acanthus , large Fontfont family , FF Clifford gorgeous text face! In , he and Hermann Zapf cooperated on Virtuosa Classic, a calligraphic script that updates and revives Zapf's own creation, Virtuosa. TX Lithium , The Typebox. Skid Row , Socia Oldstyle. Suntory corporate types , developed with the help of Matthew Carter and Linotype from Linotype originals: Member of a type design team at Monotype that created the Tazugane Gothic typeface in It is the first original Japanese typeface in Monotype's history.
Followed in by the more restrained Tazugane Info. At ATypI in St. Petersburg, he ran a Linotype student type design workshop. Rounded sans in Japan. View Akiro Kobayashi's typefaces. A thing of beauty. He also made another full free didone-style unicode font, Kandata Here you can download his Tsuitiku-Kana family from until Graphic designer in Melbourne, Australia, who created the hybrid all caps typeface Baskerone in as a mix of Baskerville and Didot.
As a student, she created various display typefaces. Akutype [Fadhl Waliy Ul Haqq]. Cairo, Egypt-based designer, who hails from Surakarta, Indonesia, b. Creator of the free brush typeface Bruss , the hand-crafted Talisman , Labours and Summer Time , the vintage sans typeface Manufactur , the vintage titling typeface Kertayasa , the marker typeface Halfway , the watercolor brush face Hale , the free display typeface Biliru , the hand-crafted Supreme , and the spurred display typeface Travelo Labours hand-crafted poster font , Rolade a rounded condensed sans , Karmilla upright didone script , Egalite slab serif.
Kruda Handcrafted Sans , Serafina a calligraphic script, attributed to Insannita Muthiahs , Kertayasa a layered and textured typeface family , Naratif Condensed. Creative Market link for Alterna Type. Prolific type designer, b. Alan started working in for Graphic Systems as a lettering artist. In , he joined Letraset as the Senior Type Designer and Studio Manager where he was responsible for all the artwork produced by the Letraset studio. During his tenure at Letraset, he designed over 40 popular typefaces, including Bramley, Candice, Bickley Script and Belwe.
Most of these typefaces also showed up in the Scangraphic collection. Together with type director Colin Brignall, Alan contributed to the success of Letraset. All the original typographic artwork produced at Letraset was produced by hand cutting the fonts in Rubylith, a highly-skilled technique known as stencil cutting. Alan was responsible for training the entire Letraset studio in this art.
Most of the original Letraset artwork has now been archived at St. Brides Printing Library, London. Today, Alan works independently, specializing in all facets of corporate identity including type design, typography, packaging, and development of logos and symbols. Chalfont similar to Antique Olive , Brigade classic roman , Fairway curly sans , Copacabana italicized roman.
Dublin a Celtic typeface , Chalky. Pinot Grigio Modern a modern rounded multi-style update of Peignot, originally designed in by A. Cassandre , Falcon Script. Park Lane a classicitalic roman. British Empire a colonial typeface. Arequipa a titling font , Independence Script a cursive script loosely based on the Declaration of Independence; co-designed with calligrapher Satwinder Sehmi , Witchcraft.
Allan Meeks collection Cedars, PA: Astoria , miniserifed family based on Gill Sans , Astoria Sans , Astoria Classic , Astoria Classic Sans , with a Peignotian feel , Brigade , serif family , Copacabana , based on Goudy Old Style Italic , Vatican , a calligraphic typeface characterized by the sharp edge style of Arthur Baker , Colosseum , a sans based on Trajan roman and influenced by Friz Quadrata , Chalfont , a News Gothic style typeface with thinned strokes near the bottomstrange and somewhat unattractive , Fairway 20o3, a quirky sans , Spartacus Galadriel, Kornelia and Sparky are floating around freely in cyberspace.
View Alan Meeks's typefaces. Yet another page with Alan Meeks's typefaces. Badalona, Catalunya-based creator of Antibodi , a textured didone display typeface. He also created the monoline monospaced typeface Bended Type designer for PhotoLettering Inc in the photo type era. Free at Google Web Fonts. The this a fashion mag display didone with plenty of additional ball terminals: Elsie is inspired by feminine energy. This new typeface was created to celebrate the world of women, glamour and fashion. It combines the strength of Bodoni with the softness of italics.
Sensitive, attractive, full of personality, innovative and subtle with both classic and new design features. Elsie , with Ana Sanfelippo. Free at Google Web Fonts , it is loosely based on the Stabilo logotype, and shows the quirkiness of retro futurism.
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Alejandro Lo Celso [Pampa Type]. Designer who lives in Buenos Aires and who teaches graphic design and typography at the Universidad de Buenos Aires. He runs Estudio Paul. Published the dot matrix font Stardust with T in Designed the gorgeous font Elektora in He developed with Michael Lynch a font Tennis set of grid-based pixel fonts. At Typeworx , he published Reflex , a commercial 6-style unicase font family. Another web site by Alejandro. Cofounder of Sudtipos , where he does custom work and creates new typefaces.
His work there includes Tierra a titling face , Latinaires For children's orthography, he developed Estrada Hand , on commission for Editorial Estrada. The Bluemlein Scripts , Umbrella and Veer are based on the calligraphic renderings of Charles Bluemlein, shown in a ink catalog: In , that series was made available at Google Web Fonts. Sudestada , Sudtipos is a handwriting script developed with Diego Giaccone. Cuisine , Umbrella Type is an informal bold script.
Suave Script is a 4am jazz bar script. Ministry is related in style but less funky, Chocolate is for sales ads, and Cenizas , with Angel Koziupa is straight from an old manuscript. Affair , Umbrella is swashy and calligraphic, while Candy Script and its italic version Sugar Pie are based on Argentina's market lettering. Galgo Script is a brush calligraphic font based on a design of Angel Koziupa. Feel Script is based on lettering that calligrapher and logo designer Rand Holub created in and that was subsequently captured in Intertype's typeface Monterey Some letterforms were redrawn from vintage American magazine ads some by Holub himself , Cuisine , food advertising script , Pronto , comic book style, by Alejandro Paul and Angel Koziupa , Grover , rounded sans family , Grover Slab Calgary Script , Umbrella is a pure signpainting job.
Accolades from all typophiles for his calligraphic wunderkind, Compendium Sugar Pie signage font , Bravissima Script , Theorem upright semi-script.
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Piel Script won an award at Tipos Latinos In , he and Koziupa made the fat signage typeface Aventura and Viento a grunge version of their earlier face, Brisa. He added one retro connected signage font to the Filmotype collection in , called Filmotype Kitten original from Filmotype Zephyr is an italic roman formal script. Filmotype Yukon is inspired by the classic Palmer style of penmanship.
Storefront is a swashy signage typeface based on an incomplete alphabet by Alf Becker. In , he helped Panco Sassano, a lettering artist and illustrator from Mar del Plata, who designed the wide connected semi-calligraphic handwriting typeface Horizontes Script Horizontes subsequently won an award at Tipos Latinos Still in , he published the fat packaging or signage script Bowling Script , which is based on Freely Drawn Italic , a non-font alphabet by Ernst Bentele Merengue Script , with Panco Sassone is a fun creamy script, ideal for pastry shops, tea rooms or supermarkets.
Steak is a connected vintage signage script based on an Alf Becker design. Winner at Tipos Latinos of a type design award for Envelove. Still in , Guille Vizzari and Alejandro Paul co-designed the great Moleskine notebook-inspired typeface family Proprietor. A pair of copperplate calligraphic typefaces. Newbery Sans Pro A simple workhorse sans typeface family that is inspired by German industrial design and the lettering of Eugen Nerdinger.
Art director in Moscow, b. His mostly free typefaces include the ultra fat art deco typeface Beyond Cyrillic and Eye lev ation Pro , for Eyelevation magazine in Russian: Italian digital art director in the Pesaro Urbino area. Creator of the stylish and frivolous adaptation called Stile Bodoni Freelance Italian graphic designer, b. In it, he describes his typeface Ernesto Hemingway. At ATypI in Helsinki, he spoke about that same typeface. Initially, he worked in Rome, with interests extending across linguistics, book design, information design, calligraphy, lettering, visual identities, and designing with multiple languages.
In he co-founded ISType , a lecture and workshop series devoted to encouraging typographic literacy in Turkey. He is the typographer and graphic designer for Contra Mundum Press CMP , a boutique publisher based in New York and Paris that specializes in world literature and other genres. He created these typefaces: A like Animals Also called A di Animali, this is an experimental typeface done together with illustrator Anna Donadelli. Limerick was designed in together with Marek Brzozowski. In , Segalini published Hemingway Pro , a commercial 9-style sans display family, available from Red Rooster.
Hemingway Deco Initials is free though. Alessandro's page with hundreds of useful links. PDF file with samples of his fonts. Moscow-based artist who created these typefaces in Curator a curvy decorative didone , Gluck a rounded monoline sans family with outlined and double outlined styles , Laser Dots , Zarathustra a soft blackletter typeface family , Pedrera and Pedrera Script , Hooley advertized as a party font , Forma free counterless typeface , Fuego calligraphic script , Arc Boutant a vintage ballpoint-laden text typeface , Moloko script , Etalon a style organic sans family , Molodos All Caps, Click Stripes, Black , Geometry Pair , Venzel an interesting experimental deco typeface , Batllo inspired by Gaudi , Pluma handwriting.
Pistoletto a jelly or toothpaste script inspired by the work of Roy Lichtenstein and Michelangelo Pistoletto , Lento a monoline script family , Rajomon a dry brush typeface , Solomonk an inky script , Ma Tilda , Warka , Abudabi connected script , Lunar , Tilda a monoline sans with character , Jeunes connected script , Danken a textured all caps typeface family , Salud a hand-drawn slab serif, with some interesting sketched and arched styles , Hoochie , Brutto stencil with alyering and coloring potential , Hvala , Mafond slab serif , Tadaam , Liberal a simple monoline sans.
Swiss graphic and type designer who lives in Duebendorf but was born in Arbon in He created the didone typeface Quick Black Educated in London, he started the Wilson foundry in at St. Wilson's first known specimen sheet was issued in However, William Rind seems to be using these types as early as February, in his Virginia Gazette. Under Alexander's tenure, it went bankrupt in They are credited with the first British modern face, Scotch Roman, whch became very popular in the United States.
The modern adaptation of the typeface was first made in by the foundry of A. It is a modern face, but less mechanical than Bodoni, and has long been popular. Capitals, though, appear heavier than lowercase letters and tend to make a spotty page. Hansen's National Roman is virtually the same face, with the added feature of an alternate r with raised arm in the manner of Cheltenham Oldstyle.
When Monotype copied Scotch Roman in , display sizes were cut to match the foundry face, but in keyboard sizes, necessarily modified to fit mechanical requirements, the caps were lightened and the entire typeface was somewhat regularized. Similar swash letters, but not shaded, were also drawn by Hess and made by Monotype for regular Scotch Roman Italic. Linotype had adapted Scotch Roman to its system in , retaining the heavier capitals, but in , by special permission of Lanston Monotype, brought out Scotch No. Russian designer of typefaces who collaborates with Ivan Zeifert and specializes in revivals, cyrillizations and beautiful digitizations, some of them done with Anatole Gophmann.
There have been complaints about her practice of borrowing fonts from type designers without asking. I have cracked open fonts she claims as hers, Bolero, Bickham and others, she has copied and pasted glyphs, copyright data, added Cyrillic and changed the copyright string. Alejandro has drawn the numerals in his font in to accompany the letters found in an old catalog of alphabets. There is no other source of the numerals, and Angelica has them. I initiated a battle with the illustrious Alexandra "Bitch" from Russia who has renamed Pouty FontBureau and copyrighted [it as] Bolero.
She and her partner Anatoly shithead. The ass's site, Jagdesh, is in Pakistan and we cannot touch him. Others have complained as well about her practice of taking and extending fonts without permission. Developer of these free font families, quite exquisite and complete: Old Standard TT Many math symbols are included. Old Standard is part of the Google open font directory of free web fonts, and was adapted for TeX use.
Old Standard is supposed to reproduce the actual printing style of the early 20th century, reviving a specific type of Modern classicist style of serif typefaces, very commonly used in various editions of the late 19th and early 20th century, but almost completely abandoned later. It supports typesetting of Old and Middle English, Old Icelandic, Cyrillic with historical characters, extensions for Old Slavonic and localised forms , Gothic transliterations, critical editions of Classical Greek and Latin, and many more.
People have also started using it for mathematical typesetting. Kryukov writes Tempora LGC Unicode was my first attempt to create a multilingual font supporting Latin, Greek including polytonic characters and Cyrillic scripts. This family is based on two well-known free typefaces similar to Adobe Times: However, all basic components of the font, and especially its Greek and Cyrillic parts, have suffered serious modifications, so that currently Tempora LGC Unicode represents an independent typeface, quite different from its predecessors.
Theano Didot is a classicist face, with both its Roman and Greek parts implemented in Didot style. Theano Modern has Greek letters designed in the Porsonic style. It is based on Figgins Pica No. Theano Old Style is a modernized "Old Style" Greek font with a large number of historic ligatures and alternate forms, modelled after some early 19th century types designed by Figgins' type foundry.
It is accompanied by a Latin typeface based on some "Old Style" Roman fonts of the late 19th and early 20th century. The following encodings are supported: He also provided valuable direction about Cyrillic and Greek typesetting.
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Russian graphic and type designer. His mostly experimental typefaces include Isopronto , geometric , Vampire , Blamed Neverland , a connect-the-dots face , Lighter techno , and Coffee , ultra-condensed. Alexis Luengas [Alexis Luengas Zimmer]. German type designer in Karlsruhe.
He created Rhetorica Its design is motivated by the elegant roman letters of the Rennaissance, capturing the vitality seen in the hand of masters like Granjon, Garamond, Jenson and Van den Keere, but also neohumanist typographers like Zapf. In , Luengas published the Meleo family. This organic semiserif family is characterized by a large x-height, and a contrast between the round nature of the regular style and the angular calligraphic features of the italic styles.
In , he started work on Didotesque. His main project in was Cavatina , a font for writing music: Similarly, the font relies on contextual alternates and ligatures to take care of the formatting and allow the support of a wide range of musical grammar.
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Among others, it is possible to write over four octaves of different notes, key and time signatures, barlines, accidentals, articulations as well as ornamentation, providing a system robust enough to allow fast musical composition. A browser based text editor with integrated MIDI playback is also provided for those who don't have a Mac. Cavatina exploits the liga , calt and gsub rules in Opentype. Alexis Luengas Zimmer [Alexis Luengas]. Louis, MO was a sign artist in the 's and 40's. Beginning in January , at the request of editor E. Thomas Kelly, Becker supplied the Signs of the Times The National Journal of Display Advertising magazine 's new Art and Design section with an alphabet a month, a project initially predicted to last only two years.
Misjudging the popularity of the series, it instead ran for 27 years, ending finally two months before Becker's death in , for a total of alphabets.
In late , just ten years after the first alphabet was published, of those alphabets were compiled and published in book form under the title Alphabets, by Alf R. A chapter of almost 27 years of extensive influence upon the development if sign and outdoor advertising lettering came to a close March 10 in the passing of Alf R. Becker, whose alphabets had been presented consistently in Signs of the Times since January, Death came in St.
FL, where he had been hospitalized since last November. The funeral services were in St. Becker had operated a commercial sign business in East St. Thomas Kelley, then editor of Signs of the Times, to do a series of alphabets for the magazine. They had estimated that 24 alphabets which would be presented in a period of two years would serve the purpose. The series was so enthusiastically received and so many readers urged continuation that it was projected indefinitely to eventually each a total of before failing health of Mr.
In this sense, law and other agencies may be used to construct interests by providing individuals with the motives to pursue courses of action beneficial to the community. It is the individual who then must correctly perceive where her interests lie; she must imagine the expected outcomes the legislator has determined. Second, Bentham recognised that explaining action in terms of interest is potentially circular. If we mean, acting to pursue our interest in the widest sense, then the statement is tautological b, 93n.
Bentham recognised the possibility of altruistic actions, and frequently alluded to his own philanthropy when recommending schemes to further the public good. However, if not all action is motivated by self-interest in the narrow or strict meaning of the term, then how far can the self-preference principle be considered a reliable guide for the legislator in constructing motives? While it is not true that everyone always acts in his or her self-interest, it is best that the legislator design institutions and law as if this were in fact true.
Self-interested acts are the norm; altruism is the exception. Third, although individuals may in general be the best judges of their own interests, they may not always judge wisely. But if people incorrectly perceive their interests, then the legislator may be misled in constructing the appropriate motivation. This means that assessing the value of the constituent elements of interest pains and pleasures is a tricky business for the legislator; he must accurately observe the ways people behave, deduce the motives behind their actions, and encompass this knowledge in the sanctions of law.
The aim is to tell individuals what they should not do, but also to provide them with motives pains and pleasures in prospect sufficient to divert their desires into channels best designed to serve the public interest. In this way government could educate its citizens to make more effective choices, or at least guide them into more appropriate paths to achieve their real interests —43, I, Bentham recognised that neither the individual nor the legislator could strictly follow the process he described.
As is well known, while adhering to the basic Benthamic analysis of motives, in Utilitarianism J. This tended to undermine the aggregative dimension of the theory laid down by Bentham. Bentham occasionally suggested that pains and pleasures might be evaluated in relation to income or wealth, but he was aware of the limitations of this approach. It is in the nature of the case that the amount of increase in happiness will not be as great as the increase in wealth; the addition of equal increments of money will eventually bring successively less of an increase in happiness.
One of its practical consequences for a utilitarian such as Bentham is that, where choices present themselves between giving an additional increment to a rich man or to a poor man, more happiness will result from giving it to the poorer of the two. Also, the analysis underscores why money cannot be a direct measure of utility, since the utility represented by a particular sum of money will vary depending on the relative wealth of the person who receives it.
Moreover, it is evident that diminishing marginal utility is also a feature of the additional increments of pleasure a person may experience beyond a certain point; equal increments of pleasure will not necessarily add to the stockpile of happiness if a person has reached a saturation point. For Bentham, the unhappiness created by the loss of something will usually have a greater impact on a person than the happiness brought about by its gain to someone else —43, I, —7.
Of course, if the loser is a wealthy person and the gainer a poor man, this will not hold. But in the normal run of things, this is why Bentham gave a higher priority to the protection of property by law and why he held that the alleviation of suffering demands more immediate attention than plans to produce wealth —54, III, , Raising public funds through taxation for vital services would be justified by the principle, as would emergency expropriation of property in times of war or famine, usually with compensation paid to the property owner.
For Bentham, the significance of this principle as a practical guide could hardly be overstated. He came to see that such a principle could justify inordinate sacrifices by a minority, however that minority might be composed, in the interest of enhancing the happiness of a majority. He considered this a false conclusion, but one that needed to be addressed.
The less the numerical difference between the minority and majority, the more obvious the deficiency in aggregate happiness will be a, Logically, then, the closer we approximate the happiness of all the members of the community, the greater the aggregate of happiness. The universal interest relates to interests that are shared by everyone, and only when it is impossible for government to contrive policies to achieve this end is a distribution of happiness less than universal or less than equal justified b, However, the number of decisions made by governments that are genuinely of universal reach are relatively few and may be limited to national defence and the framework of individual rights securities.
Beyond that, redistributive policies invariably involve unequal sacrifices and benefits. This means that the legislator must employ a utilitarian calculation in which the pain experienced by the few is reduced to the minimum necessary to produce benefits for the many; only on this basis may pleasures be summed and pains subtracted in order to produce the rationale to justify the best policy.
Related to this conception of the universal interest is the egalitarian commitment that in arriving at the appropriate law or policy the interests of each and all must count, and count equally , I, This does not mean that optimal utility is not the goal, but simply stresses that optimal utility will be more likely achieved where there is an approximate equality in the distribution of the basic requirements of happiness Postema Green forward, argue that calculations of total utility fail to respect the distinctiveness of persons and thereby place their interests at perpetual risk Rawls , 22—27; Nozick , 28—35; see the discussions in Ten , 13—37; Rosen , Chs.
If deterrence can be achieved by punishing an innocent bystander when the real culprit cannot be caught or brought to justice, then why should the bystander not be punished? Because public utility would be maximised by making an example of an innocent bystander just as much as by punishing the person who was actually guilty of the offence but who has not been apprehended, it seems the utilitarian ought to support the punishment. But this is not only intuitively wrong, it is also wrong because there is a real danger that violations of security would lead to other such violations, with no principled basis to cease inflicting them.
Basic securities must be afforded to each and every member of the community, and violations of these vital interests are not justified, whether they be perpetrated by other individuals or government, since they contravene the distributive elements of utilitarian theory. From early on in his utilitarian theorizing, Bentham understood that the achievement of utilitarian objectives in practice required the translation of the utility principle into elements amenable to implementation in ways that the philosophically abstract principle itself could not be.
Concrete manifestations of happiness, for example, could be found in personal security and reduced crime rates, enhanced health and declining death rates, broader opportunities for education, the reduction of diseases caused by sewage pollution, and so on. This deficiency did not, however, prevent him from developing the theoretical apparatus to direct the formulation of such laws. This was more than the Humean observation that utility is embedded in customary rules that have evolved over time.
Where the jurist detects deficiencies, new rules and precepts must be developed that demonstrably accord with the utility principle. The greatest happiness principle sets the over-arching objective and is the critical standard against which existing practices are to be judged.
As such, it stands ever ready to be summoned forth whenever new guidelines are needed, subordinate ends conflict, or existing laws require amendment, refinement, or further elaboration. However, in practice it is the secondary elements of the theory that do the work of producing beneficial outcomes.
In this way, they give practical concreteness to the philosophically abstract end of the greatest happiness.
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The subordinate ends of civil law are security, subsistence, abundance, and equality, in this order of priority. This is entirely consistent with the view that, properly understood, the utility principle entails a presumption in favour of an equal distribution, unless there is compelling empirical evidence that utility would not be served by such a policy. However, he refused to countenance the idea that policies to redistribute wealth at the cost of security would be beneficial either to social prosperity or individual wellbeing. Bentham believed that facilitating individuals in the pursuit of their interests in a free market is what government should do, because this is the proven best way to maximise the public good.
Where laissez-faire does not produce the best result, however, the legislator must act in other direct and indirect ways to produce the optimal outcome. But radical schemes for property re-distribution are ruled out; the axiomatic requirement that each be treated equally, that the happiness of each be counted, justified policies to equalize the distribution of goods only where this could be achieved without disappointing legitimate expectations. Just as the primary purpose of civil law is economic security and national prosperity, so it draws powerful support from the protection afforded persons, property and expectations by the threat of punishment —43, III, To this end, utilitarian penal law is framed in terms of the principal objective of deterrence, but it also embraces the secondary ends of disablement, moral reformation, and compensation see Crimmins b.
The effectiveness of the theory in practice depends on two additional features: offences must be classified solely on the basis of the harm perpetrated, and there must be an appropriate proportion between crimes and punishments. It is because of its failure to satisfy the first feature that Bentham rejected the prevailing criminalization of consensual sexual acts, and developed the first systematic defence of sexual liberty in the English language.
In settling the required proportions of punishment, Bentham recognised he had burdened the legislator with a vastly complex task—the calculation of the correct quantity and type of pain needed to achieve the desired ends, in particular the objective of deterrence. Bentham first examined the utility of the death penalty in the s when he delineated the principles of penal law —43, I, —50; see also , Ch.
In sum, it is a special application of his utilitarian theory of punishment. The framework of analysis is presented as an objective, neutral exercise, by which the benefits and costs of the death penalty in cases of murder are assessed in comparison with life imprisonment with hard labour.
All things considered, Bentham believed the weight of the calculation worked against the death penalty on the grounds of deterrence, the fact that it is inequable in its application, falling mainly on the shoulders of the poor, and because it is a form of punishment that is irremissible in the face of judicial error. By , however, he abandoned the exceptions and argued that no offence warranted capital punishment UC cvii. Subordinate ends are also evident in the design and management of the panopticon prison: security and economy are foremost, but tempered by humanity and accountability.
This view of the panopticon has opened up some interesting lines of discourse on the encroaching methods of control and surveillance in contemporary liberal societies Brunon-Ernst The end of economy determined that the panopticon prison should be a private self-sustaining operation not requiring financial assistance from the public purse. Security determined that the community be protected from convicted criminals, and severity in punishment was to serve the ends of deterrence and reformation. But security also required that the inmate be protected from cruel treatment, and humanity determined that prisoners should be deprived only of liberty not health or life.
Prisoners were to be kept clean and their labour made productive and profitable, including the development of skills that might be useful to them when released. In support of these objectives, Bentham invoked several devices to effect transparency and accountability in prison government. And, just as the panopticon was to be monitored by the publication of regular reports, so reports of government activity were required to keep the democratic polity informed and facilitate the accountability of public officials. When Bentham turned his thoughts to constitutional law in earnest in the s, partly inspired by constitution-making in parts of southern Europe, it was with the conviction that all states in which the institutions of representative democracy already existed or in which they could be introduced were fertile soil for the utilitarian pannomion.
The administrative, electoral and legislative details of this project occupied much of the last decade of his life, with its core ideas discussed in the pages of a variety of works in addition to the Code , such as Securities Against Misrule , First Principles Preparatory to Constitutional Code , and Official Aptitude Maximized; Expense Minimized. The subsidiary principles of accountability, efficiency, and economy underpinned the institutional design and procedural operations elaborated in these writings. It is imperative, therefore, to devise mechanisms that will ensure that only by acting in the public interest could they promote their own interests.
Given the extensive powers Bentham envisaged the thirteen ministries of the reformed government would possess—far more power in the areas of public health, education, and relief of the poor and indigent than existed at the time—further safeguards would be required. Intellectual and active aptitude were to be tested through an examination process, though this would come to naught if the appointed official did not possess the appropriate moral aptitude —43, IX, Other devices designed to ensure, encourage, and test the required aptitude of public officials include: 1 the precise definition of responsibilities attached to each office, against which the actions of officials could be judged by either a superordinate official or the public; 2 the principle of subordination, according to which every official was subordinate to another who could punish him for inefficiency in the performance of his tasks; 3 complete exposure to legal prosecution of all officials for wrong-doing; 4 the elimination of the practice of handing out unwarranted titles of honour to party supporters and other favourites; 5 complete publicity of government business and the elimination of secrecy; and 6 freedom of the press, speech and association see Rosen , Ch.
In the first sense of the term it is seemingly impossible for there to be a law that deliberately functions contrary to the will of the legislature. However, Bentham also held that all political authority, no matter what form it takes, is necessarily limited by its capacity to compel obedience from the people. And in Of the Limits of the Penal Branch of Jurisprudence he explained that this implies two volitions, both of which are necessary components of a complete theory of sovereignty: on the one hand, the enactments of a legislature and, on the other, the will of the people to obey those enactments.
The POT would scrutinize the actions of elected representatives, public and judicial officials, prosecuting charges where they are found remiss in their responsibilities, censoring misrule and imposing penalties when applicable. In these terms, the POT would be the leading security against the misuse and abuse of power , Vital to the functioning of the POT is the dissemination of information. In the first instance this would require the establishment of a public archive of government actions and activities containing records of law, policy, legislative debate, and statistics, which the government would be constitutionally required to make available to the public by a freedom of information provision in the constitutional code to ensure transparency.
Secondly, it would require an unshackled press to ensure widespread publicity and the freedom to criticize unimpeded by censorship or gagging orders. Here Bentham drew upon his essay On the Liberty of the Press, and Public Discussion to point out the dangers of laws designed to limit these liberties. Bentham did not consider that the effectiveness of the POT as a check on misrule could be undermined by secret government methods to limit the flow of information, nor did it occur to him that a press dominated by the views of one class could subvert the veracity of the information it disseminated.
He pinned his faith on transparency and publicity Postema , Ideally, the public would be adequately informed, and the POT would be constituted by those among the public who were both knowledgeable and concerned about the issues before it. Its judgements could change as new evidence came to light or as new arguments were enunciated, and it could be fragmented or unified in its view in proportion to the variety of individual opinions expressed. During the revolutionary years in France, Dumont fed his ideas into the debates over judicial, legal, penal and legislative reform, and if his proposals had little impact on the social and political improvements undertaken they yet contributed to the direction of French liberalism Champs It was from this platform that Bentham was able to promote himself as a potential codifier of the laws in countries near and far.
Despite the herculean efforts of Dumont, however, his ideas received a mixed reception in France see Champs , Ch. On the other hand, self-interest and the utility principle was rejected by Germaine de Stael as an impoverished grounding for moral duty, and rejected by other reformers such as Benjamin Constant who grounded their liberalism on natural rights.
Earlier, in , Bentham had counselled the French National Convention to divest itself of its colonies on the grounds of their disutility though the text Emancipate Your Colonies! Santander, who was more inclined to resist the influence of the Catholic Church, restored it to the curriculum of the universities when he became President of the newly constituted state of Colombia in A year later he published in Greek A General Theory of Administrative Systems and especially of the Parliamentary One, Accompanied by a Short Treatise on Justices of the Peace and Juries in England , containing a defense of representative government and advocating a judicial system based on utilitarian principles, replete with references to Bentham Peonidis David Hoffman first introduced utilitarian ideas into legal education in America at the University of Maryland in the early s.
The reviews paid particular attention to the systematic presentation of the theory of civil law, which also impressed itself on the teaching of law in the newly independent states of South America, where property rights were a matter of considerable importance in the aftermath of the collapse of the Spanish and Portuguese empires. Thomas Cooper, who left England for the United States in with Joseph Priestley, from whom he initially derived his utilitarianism, was a confirmed Benthamite by the s and the intended recipient of writings Bentham entrusted to John Quincy Adams. Thereafter Cooper employed utilitarian principles in his writings on law and political economy, most notably in Lectures on the Elements of Political Economy Edward Livingston, the famous author of codes of law for Louisiana, corresponded with Bentham, who sent him books for his research.
Inspired by Bentham, Vale was in favour of humane penal laws that proportioned penalties to the objective of deterrence and an advocate of state intervention to alter the social circumstances that fostered crime. Garat et son origine basque et bordelaise! On la trouve par exemple dans le Dictionnaire de la conversation de Garay de Monglave, E. Kretzschmer et A. En revanche, W. Les Basques ont-ils eu des productions relevant de ce domaine? Chaho en , etc. Ne serait-il pas utile d'exiger un air connu de tous, un de ces airs populaires que nos montagnards savent depuis longtemps et entendent toujours avec plaisir?
Borrow en Il rejoint C. Mazure et A. De telles remarques, concernant aussi la musique, sont rares. Aussi la parution du recueil d'Iztueta fait-elle figure d'exception. Etait-il en voie d'extinction? Webster, de Glasgow , comme on en trouvera trente ans plus tard Or si tout le monde chante, tous n'improvisent pas, et une chanson peut avoir une autre source que l'improvisation. Il faut donc intervenir pour les sauver de l'oubli. Ailleurs, A. D'autre part, on peut lire dans le Dictionnaire universel Larousse [s.
Gounod, A. David, J. Est-ce l'influence d'A. Enfin, rappelons que c'est P. Dans le rapport d'H. Arana Martija , J. Azkue , R. Benichou , P. Bidart , P.